Synonyms: Quinidine



(9S)-6'-methoxycinchonan- 9-ol

Functional Activity:

Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. Quinidine is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinidine is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms. Like all other class I antiarrhythmic agents, quinidine primarily works by blocking the fast inward sodium current. At micromolar concentrations, quinidine inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase by binding to the same receptor sites as the digitalis glycosides such as ouabain. Quinidine is also used to treat malaria. The half life of oral quinidine is 6 to 8 hours, and it is eliminated by the cytochrome P450 system in the liver. About 20% is excreted unchanged via the kidneys. Quinidine is also an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6, and can lead to increased blood levels of lidocaine, Beta blockers, opioids, and some anti-depressants. Quinidine also inhibits the transport protein P-glycoprotein and so can cause some peripherally acting drugs such as loperamide to have CNS side effects such as respiratory depression if the two drugs are co-administered.

Technical Data:

M.Wt: 324.42

Formula: C20H24N2O2

Solubility: Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO or 25 mM in ethanol

Purity: >99%

Storage: Dessicate at -20°C

CAS No.: 56-54-2

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References for Quintine:

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2. Daubert, J. P. Is newer better? Propafenone versus quinidine for conversion of atrial fibrillation. Cardiol J, 16: 491-492, 2009.

3. Izuwa, Y., Kusaba, J., Horiuchi, M., Aiba, T., Kawasaki, H., and Kurosaki, Y. Comparative study of increased plasma quinidine concentration in rats with glycerol- and cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 24: 451-457, 2009.

4. Haiman, G., Pratt, H., and Miller, A. Effects of dextromethorphan/quinidine on auditory event-related potentials in multiple sclerosis patients with pseudobulbar affect. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 29: 444-452, 2009.

5. Baruteau, A. E., Mabo, P., and Probst, V. Quinidine therapy in children affected by Brugada syndrome: are we far from a safe alternative? Cardiol Young, 19: 652-654, 2009.

6. Barrows, B., Cheung, K., Bialobrzeski, T., Foster, J., Schulze, J., and Miller, A. Extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by quinidine and cisapride is primarily determined by the permeant ion and not by inactivation. Channels (Austin), 3: 239-248, 2009.

Certificate of Analysis/MSDS is available upon request with lot number

References for Quercetin:

1. Yu, Z. J., He, L. Y., Chen, Y., Wu, M. Y., Zhao, X. H., and Wang, Z. Y. [Effects of quercetin on the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in human cancer MGC-803 cells]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 25: 678-680, 2009.

2. Seufi, A. M., Ibrahim, S. S., Elmaghraby, T. K., and Hafez, E. E. Preventive effect of the flavonoid, quercetin, on hepatic cancer in rats via oxidant/antioxidant activity: molecular and histological evidences. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 28: 80, 2009.

3. Shan, B. E., Wang, M. X., and Li, R. Q. Quercetin inhibit human SW480 colon cancer growth in association with inhibition of cyclin D1 and survivin expression through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Cancer Invest, 27: 604-612, 2009.

4. Jagtap, S., Meganathan, K., Wagh, V., Winkler, J., Hescheler, J., and Sachinidis, A. Chemoprotective mechanism of the natural compounds, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, quercetin and curcumin against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Curr Med Chem, 16: 1451-1462, 2009.

5. Xavier, C. P., Lima, C. F., Preto, A., Seruca, R., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Luteolin, quercetin and ursolic acid are potent inhibitors of proliferation and inducers of apoptosis in both KRAS and BRAF mutated human colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Lett, 281: 162-170, 2009.

6. Lee, Y. K., Park, S. Y., Kim, Y. M., Lee, W. S., and Park, O. J. AMP kinase/cyclooxygenase-2 pathway regulates proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells treated with quercetin. Exp Mol Med, 41: 201-207, 2009.

Certificate of Analysis/MSDS is available upon request with lot number

References for Omeprazole:

1. Freeman, K. L. and Trezevant, M. S. Interaction between liquid protein solution and omeprazole suspension. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 66: 1901-1902, 2009.

2. Fang, H. M., Xu, J. M., Mei, Q., Diao, L., Chen, M. L., Jin, J., and Xu, X. H. Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein in first-pass intestinal extraction of omeprazole in rabbits. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 30: 1566-1572, 2009.

3. Haffey, M. B., Buckwalter, M., Zhang, P., Homolka, R., Martin, P., Lasseter, K. C., and Ermer, J. C. Effects of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetic profiles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts in adults. Postgrad Med, 121: 11-19, 2009.

4. Panti, A., Bennett, R. C., Corletto, F., Brearley, J., Jeffery, N., and Mellanby, R. J. The effect of omeprazole on oesophageal pH in dogs during anaesthesia. J Small Anim Pract, 50: 540-544, 2009.

5. Cuisset, T., Frere, C., Quilici, J., Poyet, R., Gaborit, B., Bali, L., Brissy, O., Morange, P. E., Alessi, M. C., and Bonnet, J. L. Comparison of omeprazole and pantoprazole influence on a high 150-mg clopidogrel maintenance dose the PACA (Proton Pump Inhibitors And Clopidogrel Association) prospective randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol, 54: 1149-1153, 2009.

6. Van Der Straeten, F., Al-Afandi, A., De Paepe, K., Bovy, J., and Plaizier-Vercammen, J. [Pharmacy compounding of an omeprazole suspension]. J Pharm Belg: 54-63, 2009.

Certificate of Analysis/MSDS is available upon request with lot number

References for Diltiazem:

1. Sultana, Y., Mall, S., Maurya, D. P., Kumar, D., and Das, M. Preparation and in vitro characterization of diltiazem hydrochloride loaded alginate microspheres. Pharm Dev Technol, 14: 321-331, 2009.

2. Demir, M., Ozaydin, M., Varol, E., Dogan, A., and Altinbas, A. Effects of metoprolol and diltiazem on plasma homocysteine levels in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg, 9: 69-70, 2009.

3. Ezeugo, U. and Glasser, S. P. Clinical benefits versus shortcomings of diltiazem once-daily in the chronotherapy of cardiovascular diseases. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 10: 485-491, 2009.

4. Rigat, B. and Mahuran, D. Diltiazem, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, also acts as a pharmacological chaperone in Gaucher patient cells. Mol Genet Metab, 96: 225-232, 2009.

5. Matsumura, C. Y., Pertille, A., Albuquerque, T. C., Santo Neto, H., and Marques, M. J. Diltiazem and verapamil protect dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers of MDX mice from degeneration: a potential role in calcium buffering and sarcolemmal stability. Muscle Nerve, 39: 167-176, 2009.

6. Bertera, F. M., Mayer, M. A., Opezzo, J. A., Taira, C. A., and Hocht, C. Increased sensitivity to diltiazem hypotensive effect in an experimental model of high-renin hypertension. J Pharm Pharmacol, 61: 79-87, 2009.

7. Bojanic, V., Bojanic, Z., Najman, S., Savic, T., Jakovljevic, V., Najman, S., and Jancic, S. Diltiazem prevention of toxic effects of monosodium glutamate on ovaries in rats. Gen Physiol Biophys, 28 Spec No: 149-154, 2009.

Certificate of Analysis/MSDS is available upon request with lot number

References for Clotrimazole :

1. Parmar, P. and Mehta, A. Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for the Estimation of Clotrimazole in Bulk drug and Tablet Formulation. Indian J Pharm Sci, 71: 451-454, 2009.

2. Harish, N. M., Prabhu, P., Charyulu, R. N., Gulzar, M. A., and Subrahmanyam, E. V. Formulation and Evaluation of in situ Gels Containing Clotrimazole for Oral Candidiasis. Indian J Pharm Sci, 71: 421-427, 2009.

3. Sholapurkar, A. A., Pai, K. M., and Rao, S. Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Aust Dent J, 54: 341-346, 2009.

4. Iannelli, A., de Sousa, G., Zucchini, N., Peyre, L., Gugenheim, J., and Rahmani, R. Clotrimazole protects the liver against normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Transplant Proc, 41: 4099-4104, 2009.

5. Furrow, E. and Groman, R. P. Intranasal infusion of clotrimazole for the treatment of nasal aspergillosis in two cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 235: 1188-1193, 2009.

6. Rasouli, M. R., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., and Vaccaro, A. R. Re: Usul H, Arslan E, Cansever T, et al. Effects of clotrimazole on experimental spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Spine 2008;33:2863-7. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 34: 1884, 2009.

Certificate of Analysis/MSDS is available upon request with lot number

References for 8-Phenyltheophylline:

1. Murray, S., Odupitan, A. O., Murray, B. P., Boobis, A. R., and Edwards, R. J. Inhibition of human CYP1A2 activity in vitro by methylxanthines: potent competitive inhibition by 8-phenyltheophylline. Xenobiotica, 31: 135-151, 2001.

2. Lee, S. C., Mallet, R. T., Shizukuda, Y., Williams, A. G., Jr., and Downey, H. F. Canine coronary vasodepressor responses to hypoxia are attenuated but not abolished by 8-phenyltheophylline. Am J Physiol, 262: H955-960, 1992.

3. Sawynok, J., Espey, M. J., and Reid, A. 8-Phenyltheophylline reverses the antinociceptive action of morphine in the periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology, 30: 871-877, 1991.

4. Wei, H. M., Kang, Y. H., and Merrill, G. F. Canine coronary vasodepressor responses to hypoxia are abolished by 8-phenyltheophylline. Am J Physiol, 257: H1043-1048, 1989.

5. Wormald, A., Bowmer, C. J., Yates, M. S., and Collis, M. G. Pharmacokinetics of 8-phenyltheophylline in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol, 41: 418-420, 1989.

6. Nicholson, C. D. and Wilke, R. 8-phenyltheophylline as an inhibitor of cyclic AMP hydrolysis by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. J Auton Pharmacol, 9: 159-165, 1989.

Certificate of Analysis/MSDS is available upon request with lot number

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